Mental Health Book Review: If I Could Tell You How It Feels by Alexis Rose

Overall Rating:

The Mental Health Book Club Podcast enjoyed this book, both Becky and Sydney gave it 3*.

Alexis writes an honest and poignant account of how she lives with PTSD. The book is open and insightful. Alexis articulates her emotions and symptoms with compassion and intellect. The book can give any reader an insight into what it is like to live with PTSD and how Alexis copes.

The book is well written and structured with a mixture of essays and poems entwined with her accounts. Alexis talks about grief, parenting, loss, therapy and so much more. She shows what it can be to be a survivor and how to go on living.

Find our full review and interview with Alexis at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com, on iTunes or where ever you get your podcasts.

Book 38 – Manic Kingdom by Dr Erin Stair

Could that disheveled young woman – rooting around in the trash for potatoes and clothes – possibly be a med student? The unthinkable becomes reality when you are seduced by the Manic Kingdom. It can upend your seemingly pitch-perfect existence, thrusting you into a world where your inhibitions, intellect, and instincts are powerless to save you. Join Dr. Erin Stair on the journey of a lifetime. Based on a true story, Becka is on the verge of becoming a doctor, immersed in the world of physical and mental illness, while her own mental health was crumbling. Travel with her 3,000 miles away to California, where she fled from her school, her roommate and her life, finding romance and companionship with a mysterious man known only to her as “King.” King was helpful to her in many ways, but was she ignoring warning signs that disaster was right around the corner? Manic Kingdom is a frightening, sometimes humorous, essential reminder of how we can lose ourselves, how dangerous we can be to ourselves, and how fragile stability can be.

Book 35 – When Everyone Shines But You: Saying Goodbye To I’m Not Good Enough by Kelly Martin

Is this it? Why does life seem so unfair?

It’s easy to see others living our dreams. It’s easy to feel held back, misunderstood and invisible, but there comes a time in our lives when we just can’t take it anymore. This is when we need answers and the confirmation that who we think we are can change.

After a lifetime of comparing with others it takes courage to step out from behind the rock and change. When everyone around you appears to shine while you feel hidden and misunderstood, there comes a time to say goodbye to the story of ‘I’m not good enough’.

‘When Everyone Shines But You’ is a new non-fiction book by passionate writer and blogger Kelly Martin. Kelly had lived the last thirty years not feeling good enough, feeling like a failure, and watching as people her own age and even younger ‘appeared’ to be passing her by in terms of confidence, career, relationships and prosperity. As she neared 40, something began to stir inside, an unresolved sense of ‘Is this it?’ and so a huge quest began, to find answers and this book was part of that quest.

‘When Everyone Shines But You’ takes the reader on a journey. In each chapter the author sheds light on topics from rage and jealousy to money and loneliness and so much more. This is not a ‘positive thinking’ book. Kelly is a passionate advocate of the present moment. She discourages any ideas of creating your own reality or the law of attraction. Instead she brings the reader back to the present moment, in which permission is given to be completely human.

Unlike most self-help books, in which you are seen to be broken and need fixing, here you are given permission to be who you are, as you are, warts and all, negative as well as positive.

In fact, the author demonstrates that far from trying to get rid of negative thoughts, feelings and emotions, they must be accepted and understood as a natural part of who we are; that they must be embraced and given care and attention, and in so doing, they will allow us to experience who we really are, beneath the conditioning imposed on us since early childhood, by parents, teachers and all the authority figures in our lives.

We can’t force change, but we can allow change to take place naturally. There is no need to put on a happy face when feeling sad, or a peaceful demeanour when feeling angry. This is change that comes from within and is a journey where mindful living embraces ‘what is’ instead of trying to fix what we think is broken.

No more trying to fix you.

No more saying affirmations when you are not feeling them.

No more trying to create your reality.

*Discover why positive thinking does not work.

*Explore your relationship with feelings such as rage, envy and sadness.

*See how mindful living can consistently bring relief.

*Recognise the gift in using frustration as a motivation to step forward.

*Give up the ‘fast food’ approach to personal growth and grow more naturally.

*Learn how to experience alone time as sacred instead of painful.

*Understand how trying to control your world has been re-enforcing your story.

The author explains that there is a natural flow to life, and that by allowing this flow we can achieve far more than by trying to control and manipulate.

It is time for awakening to who you really are – not who you think you need to be.

Episode 82 – New Year, New You but are we putting too much pressure on ourselves?

Find out more at: www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses the pressure of new year.

Find out more about men’s mental health with Episode 40: Mental Health and Pregnancy with The Secret Psychiatrist pt 2 including father’s mental health and Episode 75 – Movember with The Secret Psychiatrist

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

If you would like access to the additional content from our uthors and exclusive eoisodes head over to Patreon.  You can support us with as little as $2 a month to get advance access  to our episodes and a range of other awards. We hope to be able to  donate money to a range of mental health charities once we reach certain  targets.

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on:

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

Mind The Mental Health Charity

  • Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
  • Text: 86463
  • http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Social Media

Twitter:

Becky: @BLawrence85

Sydney: @sydney_timmins

The Secret Psychiatrist: @thesecretpsych

Podcast: @MHBC_Podcast

Facebook

Podcast: https://www.facebook.com/MHBCpodcast/

Sydney: https://www.facebook.com/Sydney-Timmins-1695774814065575/

Interview 6 – Alexis Rose Author of If I Could Tell You How It Feels: My Life Journey With PTSD

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses self-harm, prisons, justice system, suicide and poor treatment of mental illness.

Get Book 1 here: Untangled: A story of resilience, courage, and triumph

Get Book 2 here: If I Could Tell You How It Feels: My Life Journey With PTSD

We were so privileged to speak to Alexis Rose author of If I Could Tell You How It Feels: My Life Journey With PTSD. It was an amazing discussion, covering topics from mental health and family life, stigma, and impacts of PTSD. We hope to get Alexis back on the podcast in the future to discuss her upcoming chapter in a book due to be published in September.

Follow Alexis Rose:

Facebook: www.facebook.com/atribeuntangled/

Alexis Rose blog

 

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

If you cannot wait for our next episodes you can get advanced access by going to Patreon. You can support us with as little as $2 a month to get advance access to our episodes and a range of other awards. We hope to be able to donate money to a range of mental health charities once we reach certain targets.

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on:

116 123 (UK)
116 123 (ROI)
Find out more at their website http://bit.ly/2wMpKZ5

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

0121 522 7007
http://bit.ly/1s7txdq

Mind The Mental Health Charity

Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
Text: 86463
http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Social Media

Twitter:

Becky: @BLawrence85

Sydney: @sydney_timmins

Podcast: @MHBC_Podcast

Facebook

Podcast: https://www.facebook.com/MHBCpodcast/

Sydney: https://www.facebook.com/Sydney-Timmins-1695774814065575/

Episode 50 – If I Could Tell You How It Feels by Alexis Rose pt2

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, flashbacks, grief and parenting with mental illness.

Find Alexis on Facebook

Follow her blog here

Get our next book here

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

If you cannot wait for our next episodes  you can get advanced access by going to Patreon.  You can support us with as little as $2 a month to get advance access  to our episodes and a range of other awards. We hope to be able to  donate money to a range of mental health charities once we reach certain  targets.

*Sponsor*

Happiful Magazine

Thanks to the lovely people at Happiful Magazine who have sponsored Sydney to attend the Mental Health First Aid Course this July.  We will be bringing you some special episodes on the course as Becky has completed the young people’s Mental Health First Aid Course.

If you haven’t heard of Happiful Magazine before here is what they are trying to do:

Their mission is to create a healthier, happier, more sustainable society. Aiming to provide informative, inspiring and topical stories about mental health and wellbeing. They want to break the stigma of mental health in society, and to shine a light on the positivity and support that should be available for everyone, no matter their situation. The e-magazine is free. Hard copies are available, see their website for more details.

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on:

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

Mind The Mental Health Charity

  • Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
  • Text: 86463
  • http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Social Media

Twitter:

Becky: @BLawrence85

Sydney: @sydney_timmins

The Secret Psychiatrist: @thesecretpsych

Podcast: @MHBC_Podcast

Facebook

Podcast: https://www.facebook.com/MHBCpodcast/

Sydney: https://www.facebook.com/Sydney-Timmins-1695774814065575/

Episode 50 – If I Could Tell You How It Feels by Alexis Rose pt1

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, flashbacks, grief and parenting with mental illness.

Find Alexis on Facebook

Follow her blog here

Get our next book here

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

If you cannot wait for our next episodes  you can get advanced access by going to Patreon.  You can support us with as little as $2 a month to get advance access  to our episodes and a range of other awards. We hope to be able to  donate money to a range of mental health charities once we reach certain  targets.

*Sponsor*

Happiful Magazine

Thanks to the lovely people at Happiful Magazine who have sponsored Sydney to attend the Mental Health First Aid Course this July.  We will be bringing you some special episodes on the course as Becky has completed the young people’s Mental Health First Aid Course.

If you haven’t heard of Happiful Magazine before here is what they are trying to do:

Their mission is to create a healthier, happier, more sustainable society. Aiming to provide informative, inspiring and topical stories about mental health and wellbeing. They want to break the stigma of mental health in society, and to shine a light on the positivity and support that should be available for everyone, no matter their situation. The e-magazine is free. Hard copies are available, see their website for more details.

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on:

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

Mind The Mental Health Charity

  • Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
  • Text: 86463
  • http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Social Media

Twitter:

Becky: @BLawrence85

Sydney: @sydney_timmins

The Secret Psychiatrist: @thesecretpsych

Podcast: @MHBC_Podcast

Facebook

Podcast: https://www.facebook.com/MHBCpodcast/

Sydney: https://www.facebook.com/Sydney-Timmins-1695774814065575/

Book 21 – If I Could Tell You How It Feels: My Life Journey With PTSD by Alexis Rose


If I Could Tell You How It Feels is a series of essays and poems about living authentically with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Alexis Rose takes us on a journey into the reality of living with triggers, flashbacks, and the challenges of working through trauma. She writes with intimate vulnerability about the tough subjects of family, friendships, loss, grief, parenting, and therapy.
With a sense of universal hope and honesty, the author collaborated with artist Janet Rosauer to add a dramatic and soulful dimension to many of the chapters.

Whether you are a survivor, someone living with a mental or chronic illness, a professional working within the mental health industry, or you are simply interested in learning more about the intricacies of living and thriving with PTSD, this book will provide new insights and an appreciation of this invisible illness that affects millions of people around the world.

Episode 27 – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children with the Secret Psychiatrist

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Get our next book here

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

The Secret Psychiatrist

www.thesecretpsychiatrist.com

Facebook

Twitter

Instagram

If you cannot wait for our next episodes on Childhood Abuse and Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder you can get advanced access by going to Patreon. You can support us with as little as $2 a month to get advance access to our episodes and a range of other awards. We hope to be able to donate money to a range of mental health charities once we reach certain targets.

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on:

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

Mind The Mental Health Charity

  • Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
  • Text: 86463
  • http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Episode 26 – My Courage to Tell: Facing a Childhood Bully and Reclaiming my Inner Child by Laura E. Corbeth

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this podcast discusses physical abuse, emotional abuse, cruelty to animals, bullying and neglect leading to PTSD.

Get the book here

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediately.

Samaritans on:
116 123 (UK)
116 123 (ROI)
Find out more at their website http://bit.ly/2wMpKZ5

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness
0121 522 7007
http://bit.ly/1s7txdq

Mind The Mental Health Charity
Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
Text: 86463
http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Book 11 – My Courage to Tell: Facing a Childhood Bully and Reclaiming my Inner Child

It was more than sibling rivalry.
“This is a story about hope, resilience and strength for anyone experiencing psychological abuse.

Laura really does something incredible with this book. She finds the strength and courage to tell a story about abuse – a story that will be all too familiar for millions of men and women – a story that often never gets told. She shines a spotlight on an area that demands our attention. Her brave account of suffering psychological abuse at the hands of an older brother, under the watchful eyes of her mother, is heartbreaking, riveting and empowering. It is a story that needs to be told.”


Dr. Anita Federici, Clinical Psychologist (Foreword)

*************
My Courage to Tell
My Courage to Tell is the story of one woman’s struggle to overcome a childhood of abuse at the hands of her cruel, bullying brother. Memories of this abuse remain deeply buried until an Aunt dies in Manhattan, leaving an estate Laura Corbeth must settle with her estranged brother. As she tries to administer the estate, Laura is plagued by symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Suppressed memories start to rise to the surface.

Laura begins to remember, and to face, a childhood of psychological and physical abuse. No cuts. No bruises. No scratches. Her brother was sly, constraining her to spit in her face, lick her or perform tickle torture. He took pleasure in dominating her and playing on her fears – relishing his control over his younger sibling. His lies and manipulations terrified her. Witnessing his torture of animals, left no doubt in Laura’s mind that her tormentor would follow through on his threat that he would kill her if she told.

And, where were her parents? Rather than investigating Laura’s deteriorating situation, they believed their son’s continuous lies as he denied his abuse of Laura. When they did catch glimpses of their son’s cruelty, they put it down to sibling rivalry. But it was not sibling rivalry. It was ruthless, relentless, psychological and physical abuse. And, by not dealing with it, her parents were complicit. Unheard, unprotected, Laura was completely on her own. My Courage to Tell is one of the first memoirs to shine a light on abuse from a sibling’s perspective. It also reveals how families that buy into the lies and manipulations, ignore the problems and stonewall, enable the abuser and foster mental illness.

Travel with Laura as she uncovers her past, finds the help and courage to face that past and ultimately confronts her abuser and her family.

************
“Psychological and emotional abuse (terms I use interchangeably) are often misunderstood, minimized, or ignored. Over the past decade alone, there have been substantial advances with respect to identifying, preventing and treating those who have suffered sexual and physical abuse; however, there has much less attention to identifying and addressing psychological abuse.

My Courage to Tell makes the invisible visible. Reading Laura’s account of healing and recovery is inspirational and is an outstanding contribution to the literature on psychological abuse in families. Her willingness to confront and share the scary and painful reality of her childhood and detail how various treatment interventions allowed her to work through distressing memories, emotions, and beliefs will pave the way for others who recognize themselves in Laura’s story.

Episode 16 – Acute Stress Disorder

Find out more at www.mentalhealthbookclub.com

Trigger warning: this episode contains discussion about rape, assult, violence robbery and gun crime.

Get the next book here

If you feel suicidal call 999 immediatly

If you need to talk you can contact:

Samaritans on

Anxiety support groups:

Anxiety UK

  • Infoline: 08444 775 774 (Mon-Fri 9:30am – 5.30pm)
  • Text Service: 07537 416 905
  • Or visit their website http://bit.ly/1DRRCUb
 Better Help

Mental Health Resources:

Rethink Mental Illness

Mind The Mental Health Charity:

  • Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Our lines are open 9am to 6pm, Monday to Friday (except for bank holidays)
  • Text: 86463
  • http://bit.ly/2p6rntK

Acute stress disorder

Introduction and statistics

Acute stress disorder or acute stress reaction is a mental health condition similar to Post traumatic stress disorder, diagnosed within a month of the traumatic experience occurring. These traumatic events involve a threat or actual death, series injury, physical violation (rape, robbery/assault) to individuals or others

Within one month of a trauma, survivors show rates of Acute Stress Disorder ranging from 6% to 33%.

Rates differ for different types of trauma. For example, survivors of accidents or disasters such as typhoons show lower rates of ASD. Survivors of violence such as robbery, assaults, and mass shootings show rates at the higher end of that range

Prevalence of acute stress disorder:

  • Motor vehicle accident – 13% to 21%
  • Mild traumatic brain injury – 14%
  • Assault – 16% to 19%
  • Burn – 10%
  • Industrial accident – 6% to 12%
  • Witnessing a mass shooting – 33%
  • Rape – 94%

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/problems/acute-stress-disorder.asp

https://mindcology.com/mental-health/anxiety/statistics-acute-stress-disorder-infographic/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/acute-stress-disorder

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-stress-disorder-in-adults-epidemiology-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-course-and-diagnosis

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jts.2490050309/full

Definition of Trauma

Trauma has both a medical and a psychiatric definition. Medically, trauma refers to a serious or critical bodily injury, wound, or shock. This definition is often associated with trauma medicine practiced in emergency rooms and represents a popular view of the term. In psychiatry, trauma has assumed a different meaning and refers to an experience that is emotionally painful, distressful, or shocking, and which often results in lasting mental and physical effects.

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/problems/acute-stress-disorder.asp

Diagnosis

DSM-5 diagnostic criteria

A. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one (or more) of the following ways:

  • Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s).
  • Witnessing, in person, the events(s) as it occurred to others.
  • Learning that the traumatic events(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend. Note: In cases of actual or threatened by death of a family member or friend, the events(s) must have been violent or accidental.
  • Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse). Note: This does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures unless this exposure is work related.

B. Presence of nine (or more) of the following symptoms from any of the five categories of intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and arousal, beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred:

Intrusion symptoms

  • Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s). Note: In children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the traumatic event(s) are expressed.
  • Recurrent distressing dreams in which the content and/or affect of the dream are related to the events(s). Note: In children older than 6, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.
  • Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were recurring. (Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression being a complete loss of awareness of present surroundings). Note: In children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur in play.
  • Intense or prolonged psychological distress or marked physiological reactions in response to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic events.

Negative Mood

  • Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings).

Dissociative Symptoms

  • An altered sense of the reality of one’s surroundings or oneself (e.g., seeing oneself from another’s perspective, being in a daze, time slowing.)
  • Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic events(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs).

Avoidance symptoms

  • Efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
  • Efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations) that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).

Arousal symptoms

  • Sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep, restless sleep)
  • Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects.
  • Hypervigilance
  • Problems with concentration
  • Exaggerated startle response

C. The duration of the disturbance (symptoms in Criterion B) is 3 days to 1 month after trauma exposure. Note: Symptoms typically begin immediately after the trauma, but persistence for at least 3 days and up to a month is needed to meet disorder criteria.

D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., medication or aocohol) or other medical condition (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury) and is not better explained by brief psychotic disorder.”

Read more: http://traumadissociation.com/acutestressdisorder

ICD-10

Acute stress reaction F43.0

A transient disorder that develops in an individual without any other apparent mental disorder in response to exceptional physical and mental stress and that usually subsides within hours or days. Individual vulnerability and coping capacity play a role in the occurrence and severity of acute stress reactions. The symptoms show a typically mixed and changing picture and include an initial state of “daze” with some constriction of the field of consciousness and narrowing of attention, inability to comprehend stimuli, and disorientation. This state may be followed either by further withdrawal from the surrounding situation (to the extent of a dissociative stupor – F44.2), or by agitation and over-activity (flight reaction or fugue). Autonomic signs of panic anxiety (tachycardia, sweating, flushing) are commonly present. The symptoms usually appear within minutes of the impact of the stressful stimulus or event, and disappear within two to three days (often within hours). Partial or complete amnesia (F44.0) for the episode may be present. If the symptoms persist, a change in diagnosis should be considered.

Acute:

  • Crisis reaction
  • reaction to stress
  • Combat fatigue
  • Crisis state
  • Psychic shock

http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/en#/F43.0

ICD-11 Beta draft

QF64 Acute stress reaction

Description

Acute stress reaction refers to the development of transient emotional, somatic, cognitive, or behavioural symptoms as a result of exposure to an event or situation (either short- or long-lasting) of an extremely threatening or horrific nature (e.g., natural or human-made disasters, combat, serious accidents, sexual violence, assault). Symptoms may include autonomic signs of anxiety (e.g., tachycardia, sweating, flushing), being in a daze, confusion, sadness, anxiety, anger, despair, overactivity, inactivity, social withdrawal, or stupor. The response to the stressor is considered to be normal given the severity of the stressor, and usually begins to subside within a few days after the event or following removal from the threatening situation.

Inclusions

  • Acute crisis reaction
  • Acute reaction to stress

Exclusions

  • Post traumatic stress disorder (6B70)

https://icd.who.int/dev11/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f675461815

Symptoms

Symptoms fall into the following five categories:

  • Intrusion symptoms/re-experiencing the trauma (involuntary and intrusive distressing memories of the trauma or recurrent distressing dreams)
  • Negative mood / distress (persistent inability to experience positive emotions such as happiness or love)
  • Dissociative symptoms (feeling numb, detached, emotionally unresponsive (daze) time slowing, seeing oneself from an outsider’s perspective, thoughts or feelings don’t seem real or don’t seem like they belong to you, reduced awareness of surroundings)
  • Avoidance symptoms (avoidance of memories, thoughts, feelings, people, objects, activities, or places associated with the trauma)
  • Arousal symptoms/ anxiety (difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritable behavior, problems with concentration, unable to stop moving/sit still, being constantly tense and on guard, becoming startled too easily)

https://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/acute-stress-disorder

https://www.healthline.com/health/acute-stress-disorder#symptoms

Who’s at risk?

Several factors can place you at higher risk for developing ASD after a trauma:

  • Having gone through other traumatic events
  • Having had ASD or PTSD in the past
  • Having had prior mental health problems
  • Tending to have symptoms, such as not knowing who or where you are, when confronted with trauma
  • a history of dissociative symptoms during traumatic events

https://www.healthline.com/health/acute-stress-disorder#risk-factors

Treatments

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to have positive results. Research shows that survivors who get CBT soon after going through a trauma are less likely to get PTSD symptoms later.

Another treatment called psychological debriefing (PD) has sometimes been used in the wake of a traumatic event. However, there is little research to back its use for effectively treating ASD or PTSD. I

Medications

  • SSRI’s or benzodiazepines

Risk of developing PTSD

  • The diagnosis was established to identify those individuals who would eventually develop post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Those that do not get ASD can develop PTSD later on and that is 4-13% of people who have suffered a traumatic event.
  • 80% of people who are diagnosed with Acute stress disorder go on to develop PTSD

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/problems/acute-stress-disorder.asp

Prevention or more reducing the likelihood of developing Acute Stress Disorder

Early treatment – within hrs of the trauma. People who are at high risk jobs/situations could find benefit from preparation training and counselling to reduce the individual’s risk.

https://mindcology.com/mental-health/anxiety/statistics-acute-stress-disorder-infographic/

https://www.emaze.com/@AITTTZOR/Acute-Stress-Disorder

PTSD Diagnosis

DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD

Full copyrighted criteria are available from the American Psychiatric Association (1). All of the criteria are required for the diagnosis of PTSD. The following text summarizes the diagnostic criteria:

Criterion A (one required): The person was exposed to: death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence, in the following way(s):

  • Direct exposure
  • Witnessing the trauma
  • Learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma
  • Indirect exposure to aversive details of the trauma, usually in the course of professional duties (e.g., first responders, medics)

Criterion B (one required): The traumatic event is persistently re-experienced, in the following way(s):

  • Intrusive thoughts
  • Nightmares
  • Flashbacks
  • Emotional distress after exposure to traumatic reminders
  • Physical reactivity after exposure to traumatic reminders

Criterion C (one required): Avoidance of trauma-related stimuli after the trauma, in the following way(s):

  • Trauma-related thoughts or feelings
  • Trauma-related reminders

Criterion D (two required): Negative thoughts or feelings that began or worsened after the trauma, in the following way(s):

  • Inability to recall key features of the trauma
  • Overly negative thoughts and assumptions about oneself or the world
  • Exaggerated blame of self or others for causing the trauma
  • Negative affect
  • Decreased interest in activities
  • Feeling isolated
  • Difficulty experiencing positive affect

Criterion E (two required): Trauma-related arousal and reactivity that began or worsened after the trauma, in the following way(s):

  • Irritability or aggression
  • Risky or destructive behavior
  • Hypervigilance
  • Heightened startle reaction
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulty sleeping

Criterion F (required): Symptoms last for more than 1 month.

Criterion G (required): Symptoms create distress or functional impairment (e.g., social, occupational).

Criterion H (required): Symptoms are not due to medication, substance use, or other illness.

Two specifications:

  • Dissociative Specification. In addition to meeting criteria for diagnosis, an individual experiences high levels of either of the following in reaction to trauma-related stimuli:
    • Depersonalization. Experience of being an outside observer of or detached from oneself (e.g., feeling as if “this is not happening to me” or one were in a dream).
    • Derealization. Experience of unreality, distance, or distortion (e.g., “things are not real”).
  • Delayed Specification. Full diagnostic criteria are not met until at least six months after the trauma(s), although onset of symptoms may occur immediately.

Note: DSM-5 introduced a preschool subtype of PTSD for children ages six years and younger.

https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp